Transparency International, headquartered in Berlin, it is a non-profit organization focused on anti-corruption operating internationally. Its purpose is to combat corruption and associated criminal activities.
On January 30, 2024, Transparency International published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) for the year of 2023, which is summarized in the world map above. Countries with lower levels of corruption are indicated in yellow, while those with higher levels are shown in dark red The CPI currently considers 180 countries and has been published annually by the organization since 1995.
Indeed, the CPI assesses how the public sectors of these 180 countries are perceived by experts and executives, rather than by the general public. The report is compiled by analyzing data from 13 different sources, all of which are independent of Transparency International and not influenced or manipulated by the organization. Among these sources, data produced by the World Bank and by the World Economic Forum is taken into account, as well as data prepared by risk analysis companies and by companies that play an advocacy role for public policies, producing knowledge on political, economic, or scientific topics.
In fact, Transparency International standardizes the scores, as their metrics may differ from country to country. Standardization then ranges from 0 to 100, being calculated for each country.
According to Transparency International, this year's CPI for 2023 revealed that more than two-thirds of the countries assessed received a score below 50 out of 100, indicating significant corruption issues. The global average has remained stagnant at 43, with the majority of countries showing little to no improvement or even experiencing a decline over the past decade. Furthermore, 23 countries reached their lowest scores on record.
The ranking of all countries can be seen in the images below:
Since 2014, six countries have made notable progress: Uzbekistan increased by 15 points, Tanzania by 10 points, Ukraine by 10 points, Ivory Coast by 8 points, the Dominican Republic by 7 points, and Kuwait by 7 points. These advancements signify significant strides in the anti-corruption effort.
Conversely, six other countries have experienced a significant decline in their fight against corruption: Turkey decreased by 11 points, Guatemala by 9 points, Sweden by 7 points, Gabon by 7 points, Mongolia by 6 points, and Sri Lanka by 4 points.
Below is a table of country fluctuations from 2012 to the present:
At the top of the ranking there is Denmark with 90 points, Finland with 87 points, New Zealand with 85 points, followed by Norway, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Germany, and Luxembourg, making up the top 10 positions. On the other hand, there is Somalia with 11 points, Venezuela, Syria, and South Sudan with 13 points, followed by Yemen, Nicaragua, North Korea, Haiti, Equatorial Guinea, and Turkmenistan closing the bottom of the ranking.
In South America, Uruguay continues to lead the ranking with 73 points, followed by Chile with 66 points. Other South American countries, including Brazil, perform poorly, with scores ranging between 30 and 40, with the exceptions of Bolivia with 29 points, Paraguay with 28 points, and Venezuela with a mere 13 points.
The subpar performance of the South American continent becomes evident when considering the global average of 43 points. Among all South American countries, only Uruguay and Chile stand out.
Regarding Brazil, the country regrettably declined from 38 points in 2022 to 36 points in 2023, dropping a significant 10 positions in the overall ranking and landing at 104th place out of the 180 evaluated countries. The table below clearly shows the evolution of the Brazil's CPI over time:
Between 2012 and 2023, Brazil lost five points and dropped 35 positions, moving from 69th to 104th place. The 36 points achieved by the country in 2023 represent a poor performance and place it below the global average, of 43 points, the regional average for Latin America and the Caribbean of 43 points, the BRICS average of 40 points and even further away from average of G20 countries 53 points and OECD of 66 points.
In publishing the CPI for 2023, Transparency International also issued a document titled Brazil 2023 Retrospective the form of a report. This report aims to outline the strengths and weaknesses contributing to Brazil's stagnation in the fight against corruption, offering valuable insights.
Transparency International's report is not merely critical; it also provides recommendations directed at the Brazilian Government, Congress, the Brazilian Courts, and the Prosecution Office. Each of these entities plays a pivotal role in combatting corruption, and implementing changes to hinder corrupt practices relies heavily on their cooperation and action.